52 Thin Film Analysis Certified Testing of Layer Systems and Surfaces BAM Division “Surface Modification and Measurement Technique,” deals with the characterization of thin films and functional surfaces such as hard coatings (e.g. wear protection), optical layer systems (e.g. UV protection) and metallic coatings (e.g. corrosion protection or as electro-magnetic shielding). Various testing procedures accredited under DIN EN ISO/ IEC 17025 enable the determination of mechanical, optical, micro-structural and electrical surface and layer quantities, common substrate and layer properties such as surface topography as well as energy, thickness and adhesion. X Link ® : Cross-linking control in the blink of an eye © LayTec GmbH Metrology for Thin-film Processes LayTec measuring instruments provide real-time information on coating process parameters – either in-situ (directly during the process) or in-line (during the substrate transfer between coating steps). The technologies used by LayTec metrology include: • Multiple wavelength reflectance • Reflectance and transmittance metrology • Infrared and UV pyrometry • Deflectometry • Photoluminescence • Conductivity • Reflection Anisotropy Spectroscopy (RAS) • Cross-linking degree control LayTec supplies these measurement technologies for the production of semiconductors, solar cells, electronic and opto-electronic components, as well as for use in ambitious research projects Depending on material and layer thickness, different non-destructive and destructive techniques can be applied with supplementary or overlapping fields of application: • Spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) • X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) • X-ray reflectometry (XRR) • Light microscopy / Metallography • Eddy current-/ magnetic field probe • White light interference microscopy (WLIM) • Atomic force microscopy (AFM) • Fringe projection (FP) • Light microscopy / Metallography • Mechanical profilometry (stylus) • Instumented indentation testing (IIT) • Micro hardness measurement per Vickers / Knoop • FTIR spectroscopy / imaging (FTIR) • X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) • X-ray diffractometry (XRD, GIXD) • Spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) • Color measurement • Tensiometry: plate method, drop method • Centrifuge adhesion test • Scratch test • Peel test www.laytec.de www.bam.de/en 4 4 www.bam.de/en/kompetenzen/fachabteilungen/abteilung_6/fb67/index.htm
Thin Film Analysis 53 Overcoming the Turbulences in the Photovoltaics Market Interview with Dr. Albrecht Krüger, SENTECH Instruments GmbH SENTECH‘s main market is in research and development with a focus on thin film analysis. How is the field developing internationally? After the worldwide fall in demand for measurement technology for photovoltaics, the market for thin film analysis has re-stabilized. In order to generate new growth potential, SENTECH is also looking for other fields of application. For example, SENTECH uses high speed, low-noise ellipsometers in in-line and in-situ applications. With in-situ applications, there are synergies between thin film measurement and plasma process technology – our second business segment. The best example is the latest product, the ALD Real Time Monitor, which detects cyclic layer growth of atomic layer deposition in real time by SENTECH ALD reactors. As a result of the sales crisis, numerous investments in the photovoltaic market have been put aside. This market was very important for SENTECH – how do you assess the current and future market situation? SENTECH was able to position itself well in the photovoltaic market and its SE 400 PV laser ellipsometer is the worldwide standard for measuring individual antireflective coatings. It‘s true that investment-related new acquisitions are, indeed, rare. But we see a trend and new opportunities in the development of solar cells through the use of complex multi-layer systems for passivation and antireflective coatings. SENTECH can supply spectroscopic ellipsometers used in this process. Judging from prior sales to research institutes, these devices are now increasingly used by cell manufacturers in Taiwan, which we see as an indication that the PV market in Asia is growing once again. Does your company currently work with the Berlin branch? What advantages does the Berlin site offer you? SENTECH benefits in many ways from the Adlershof site, because it facilitates intensive cooperation with universities, institutions of higher education and research institutes in the Berlin area. For example, SENTECH is working closely with the Ferdinand-Braun-Institut as a competence center for III/V-compound semiconductors in the fields of microwave technologies and opto-electronics. The Fraunhofer Institutes in the Greater Berlin area are always good partners in developing and improving applications. The number of successful partnerships that lead to new products is what makes Berlin attractive to us. What new projects are you currently working on in the field of research and development? Projects are important for SENTECH for a variety of reasons. Most importantly, it promotes the continued development of our application spectrum and range of products. Sponsored projects support our development objectives. In order to expand our position in the photovoltaic market of the future, we are, for example, involved in developing passivation and anti-reflection coatings for solar cells. In addition to measurements of highly scattering samples for photovoltaics, SENTECH focuses on developments in micro- and nano-structuring. Scattering measurements can be used to characterize regular structures in 3D. SENTECH and its partners have received funding to develop this technology. Projects and partnerships play a very important role for SENTECH because they allow us to advance application-oriented development and promote innovation. Dr. Albrecht Krüger CEO SENTECH Instruments GmbH Schwarzschildstraße 2 12489 Berlin Email: firstname.lastname@example.org www.sentech.com Dr. Albrecht Krüger studied and received his doctorate in Physics from the Martin-Luther-Universität in Halle. In September 1990, he and Dr. Helmut Witek founded SENTECH Instruments in Berlin. The company’s core interest lies in the development, manufacture and marketing of thin film measurement and plasma process technology.