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Optical Analytics in the Capital Region Berlin-Brandenburg

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48 Thin

48 Thin Film Analysis 5.4 Thin Film Analysis Introduction The precision control of thin film processes is particularly relevant due to its high innovation potential and the development of new inorganic, organic and hybrid material structures. It is found in key diagnostics for nanotechnologies, semiconductor technologies and materials science, where it accelerates the development of innovative complex material systems. The many technological challenges include, for example, the development of miniaturized optical systems, light sources, highly sensitive detectors, algorithms for data analysis, image processing and pattern recognition, as well as optimization of cost-effective systems for specific applications in materials technology. The region is home to component developers and manufacturers working along the entire innovation and value chain. In addition, strong research partners with complementary technologies at large-scale facilities can also be found in the region as well as a strong potential user community in the field of materials science. Reflectometry on Large Samples The BESTEC product portfolio includes measurement systems for light-in / light-out technologies in the energy range from UV to soft X-rays, which are used, for instance, in reflectometry, ellipsometry or Raman spectroscopy. They are suitable for applications such as measuring large surfaces in the optics industry, for basic research at XFEL sources, or for materials research at synchrotron radiation sources. All Bestec systems feature precise in-vacuum manipulators for samples and detectors, which enable highly reproducible movements in several degrees of freedom over broad areas. Their robust, lubricant-free design, with special attention given to ensuring they are particle-free, guarantees safe and reliable operation. Fully automated variants as well as models tailored to the specific detector type and sample size can be produced on request. Spectroscopic Ellipsometry SENTECH Instruments, based in the Adlershof Technology Park, offers a wide range of reflectometers as well as laser and spectroscopic ellipsometers in its product portfolio with innovative thin-film metrology. SENTECH continuously develops new applications. The Müller matrix can now be measured using the 2C-option for the spectroscopic ellipsometer SENresearch. This makes it possible to measure all 16 Müller Matrix elements with an accuracy of +/- 0.005. This option expands the areas of application of the SENresearch ellipsometer to include in particular anisotropic, depolarizing and structured samples. Furthermore, this innovative ellipsometer can now determine the exact refractive index, absorption coefficient and Reflectometers for large samples and investigations with monochromatic light in the wavelength range of 10 nm – 20 nm © BESTEC GmbH Spectroscopic ellipsometer SENresearch 4.0 © SENTECH Instruments GmbH

Thin Film Analysis 49 film thickness by applying the Step Scan Analyzer (SSA) principle. The motorized goniometer allows independent movements of analyzer and compensator, which allows it to perform angle-dependent scattering measurements in order to analyze periodic structures. In Situ Spectroscopy The In Situ Spectroscopy group at the Leibniz-Institute for Analytical Sciences – ISAS – e.V. (ISAS) in Berlin-Adlershof aims to develop strategies for in situ spectroscopic investigations of functional organic surfaces and hybrid films, with a special emphasis on vibrational spectroscopy. The group develops methods in the areas of optical models, evaluation procedures and experimental equipment for the in situ study of surfaces in liquid environments (Reflection-Anisotropy-Spectroscopy, Ellipsometry, Raman and IR spectroscopy, IR Microscopy, IR mapping ellipsometry at BESSY II). Combined lab and synchrotron measurements focus on functional films and molecule adsorption on functional surfaces, e.g. stimuli responsive polymer brushes or specific linkers for bio- and solar cell applications. Measurement concepts are being continuously improved in order to analyze more quickly, with higher sensitivity and at higher lateral resolution. 1 In optical applications, thin layers/coatings are utilized to customize the reflection or transmission performance of surfaces and optical components for UV-, VIS- and IR radiation. Common uses include the production of reflective elements (e.g. mirrors) or as anti-reflective coating for optical surfaces (e.g. lenses, prisms, displays, panels and OLEDs). For these purposes, metals with high absorption- or reflection capacity as well as dielectric materials with high transparency are utilized. The imaging NIR hyperspectral cameras uniSPECx.xHSI from LLA Instruments make it possible to spacially measure the spectral processes of the transmittance or reflectance factors of optical components at wavelengths ranging from 350 nm to 2200 nm. A common application is in automatic full-surface material control of glasses or filter lenses in UV-, VIS or NIR spectral range immediately after the dielectric coating process. Infrared Thermography During the production of solar cells, temperature distribution on the wafers is recorded during string brazing. This assures a reliable and efficient assembling process. Temperature measurement takes place on the silicon surface, which is connected to the braze point. This is how the quality of the homogeneity of the brazing is measured. Challenges posed to brazing process monitoring are: adequate local resolution and temporal resolution, since the heating of the braze points can take place in less than a second. The optris PI infrared camera from Optris has established itself as a suitable measurement device given its resolution of 160x120 pixels as well as a frame rate of 120 Hz for the whole image. Contact-free infrared thermography is an essential tool for checking the performance of solar cells. One option for performance checking is periodical modulated illumination of solar cells while simultaneous observing the process with an infrared camera – so-called Illuminated Lock-In Thermography. Imaging Spectroscopy of Optical Layers 2 Optical Measuring as a Service Optotransmitter-Umweltschutz-Technologie e.V. (OUT e.V.) provides the optical measurement of plane coatings and surfaces as a technical service. This includes wavelength-dependent transmission, absorption and reflection 1 2

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