34 Process Measurement Technology 5.1 Process Measurement Technology Introduction It seems rather clear what the conditions must be to promote next-generation industrial processes and related trends in the development of cyber-physical systems meant to ensure an intelligent production environment for the “factory of the future” (smart factory): complete and accurate measurement of all relevant industrial production parameters. This applies to quantities of raw materials as well as process parameters and final product characteristics. Whether these parameters are measured before, during or after a certain stage of production – they all allow for efficient production at the highest levels of quality and with the lowest defect rate. This only increases the importance of process measurement technology, e.g. in the chemical/pharmaceutical industry, in production engineering, agriculture or environmental protection. It provides a better understanding of observed processes, which then serves as the basis for optimizing the design of those processes (quality by design) while also opening up the possibility for continuous quality and safety monitoring of products and materials. Process analytical technologies require a high degree of reliability in terms of technical functionality, analytical precision, robustness and safety. This reliability must be guaranteed. According to the Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM), process analytics will have a significant impact in the coming years, in particular on chemical and pharmaceutical production as well as manufacturing technology, thereby heavily influencing the market. The historical relationship between research and industry in Berlin and Brandenburg has given rise to the development of many small, medium and large companies that offer highly specialized solutions for process measurement technology services. SMEs in particular have often drawn on their founders’ core expertise to develop a number of methods and instruments that are among world’s topranking technologies. They are supported by numerous research institutions with closely related applications that continuously develop and commercialize new technologies at the highest levels of quality. The range of topics is considerable. The following overview can, by its very nature, only provide an initial glimpse into a constantly changing landscape of companies and institutes at various locations in Berlin and Brandenburg. Process Analytical Technology The focus of the BAM Division “Process Analysis Technology” is on the development and application of process analytical technologies. This includes the development and validation of analytical on-line and at-line methods. The PAT Division supports BAM through research, development and public discussion in the: • development of on-line analytical measurement and sensor technology with a focus on improvement of measuring capability • generation of robust process data analysis tools for verifying process capability • determination of “non-chemical” quantities as empirical quality parameters This allows BAM to handle the following topics: • Gas Analysis • Inorganic Process Analysis – X-ray Fluorescence Analysis • Optical Spectroscopy • Chemometrics; Metrology The following methods are employed: • (Process)-Raman spectroscopy • Process gas analysis • X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) • Quantitative Process NMR spectroscopy • Process-UV/VIS and NIR-spectroscopy www.bam.de/en 1 JP-ProteQ concerns itself with the analytical collection of production data as a basis for reliable process controls without identifying specific technologies or manufacturers. The focus is instead placed on the task itself, which is addressed, wherever possible, through modifications made to existing technologies. This is the fastest and most cost-effective way to approach the problem. In doing so, JP-ProteQ collaborates with partners such as the University of Potsdam, Optikexpertisen Dr. Volker Raab, Astro- und Feinwerktechnik Adlershof GmbH, among others, who apply their specific expertise to each respective project. www.jp-proteq.com 1 www.bam.de/en/kompetenzen/fachabteilungen/abteilung_1/fg14
Process Measurement Technology 35 Multidimensional Methods for Industrial Quality Assurance Interview with Dr. Uwe Beck, Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM) Dr. Beck, as head of the Surface Modification and Metrology Division at the Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM), you work on behalf of the Federal Ministry of Economics on applications, in particular for private industry. What technical subjects are your primary concern? The division is divided into three areas of expertise in the fields of surface modification and surface metrology with the following priorities: 1. mechanical and technological, 2. optical and 3. chemical-microstructural surface and layer quantities. Analysis, measurement and testing methods as well as application-related optical methods are particularly relevant. They work quickly, usually non-destructively and non-invasively, require only small amounts of analyte, and can be used multi-spectrally in different wavelength ranges (from EUV to FIR). The division is currently working on about 10 projects with funding from a variety of sponsors (EU, BMBF, BMWi, AiF, DFG). Projects in the field of optical metrology currently deal with such diverse topics as film characterization of energy conversion systems, monitoring hazardous gases using new photonic sensors, as well as optical detection of residual dirt, impurities and contamination on surfaces. Three optical methodology groups deserve special mention: firstly, ellipsometry for non-destructive material and layer analysis; secondly, the scanning probe method for evaluating surface topography; and thirdly, the microstructural/chemical method. This combination of multi-probe methods is so crucially important because BAM’s research is not directed at standard products, materials or applications but rather at the entire spectrum of materials and applications. With increasing miniaturization, probe artifacts must always be taken into consideration. The multi-probe approach therefore provides a fundamental opportunity to validate hitherto uncharted ways of solving a problem. What sorts of prospective projects can companies approach you about? What does a collaboration look like in actual practice? There are no fundamental restrictions, just plenty of options: starting with testing reports, on through R&D preliminary studies, grant-based or externally- funded projects, comparative tests, quality assurance measurements, handling damage cases, as well as developing customized reference materials or work in pre-normative research. In thin film analysis, there is a major trend towards optical measuring methods. They are contact-free and simple. What developments do you expect in this area in the coming years? That’s pretty obvious: continued miniaturization, nano-technology is on the rise. At the same time, however, there is also a need to evaluate larger surfaces, quantities of substances and batch sizes with cycle times as required by industrial quality assurance, where one second (per analysis, measurement, test) is often the benchmark. On the other hand, the product, material, charge must often be qualified in square meters, tons, 10M units. For this, multi-dimensional methods, such as, for instance, the transition from mapping to imaging, are essential. Moreover, quality assurance often implies at-line, on-line and in-situ applicability of methodologies, of which optical far-field methods, including ellipsometry, are of elemental importance. As is the case in microelectronics, miniaturization will continue in microsystems technologies. The transition from MEMS to MOEMS is already underway. Semiconductor lasers and LEDs make hand-held analytical, testing and measuring systems a possibility, something that was unthinkable a few years ago. High intensity miniaturized light sources, integrated waveguides, laser-resistant layer systems, multi-modal techniques and the exploitation of quantum effects are some of the other buzzwords involved. All analyses, measurements, tests should be carried out with as high a lateral resolution (2D pixel) as possible, even using tomography (3D voxel). Dr. Uwe Beck Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM) Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Division 6.7, Surface Modification and Metrology Unter den Eichen 44 – 46 12203 Berlin Email: email@example.com www.bam.de/en Dr. Uwe Beck studied physics at TU Dresden. His dissertation focused on corrosion research. From 1980-1991 he worked at the research center in Teltow. After postgraduate studies at the Berlin Academy of Sciences, Dr. Beck received his PhD from the HU Berlin in 1990 in film systems for EL displays. Since 1991, he has been working at BAM Berlin where he was appointed Head of the “Surface Modification and Measurement Technique”. Division in 2012. Together with Prof. Dr. A. Lunk (University of Stuttgart), he also founded the Arbeitskreis Ellipsometrie (AKE) – Paul Drude e. V. (the German association on ellipsometry) in 1999.