52 Cluster Report Optics and Photonics – Optical Analytics developers and manufacturers along the entire innovation and value chain are active in the region. In addition, strong research with complementary technologies is available at large-scale facilities (synchrotron) and a strong potential user community is active in materials science. www.sentech.de Reflectometry on large samples The product portfolio of BESTEC GmbH includes measuring systems for photon-in/photon-out technologies in the energy range from UV to soft X-ray radiation, used, for example, in spectroscopy, reflectometry, ellipsometry, and Raman spectroscopy. They are used to characterise multi-layer mirrors in the optics industry and for theoretical research on synchrotron radiation sources and free-electron lasers. www.bestec-berlin.de Spectroscopic ellipsometry SENTECH Instruments, located in the Berlin-Adlershof Technology Park, specialises in thin films. The company offers plasma process technology for the structuring and deposition of thin layers and nanostructures. It offers a wide range of reflectometers as well as laser and spectroscopic ellipsometers for the characterisation of very thin layers. SENTECH ellipsometers can now determine all elements of the Mueller calculus and thus extend the range of applications to anisotropic,depolarising, and structured samples. This innovation also enables the precise determination of refractive index, absorption, and film thickness by applying the Step Scan Analyzer (SSA) principle. SENresearch spectroscopic ellipsometer © SENTECH Instruments GmbH In situ spectroscopy The development of in situ spectroscopy, especially vibrational spectroscopy, for the investigation of functional organic surfaces and hybrid layers is the main goal of the In-Situ Spectroscopy Group at the Leibniz-Institut für Analytische Wissenschaften – ISAS e. V. in Berlin-Adlershof. In particular, the group is developing methods for optical models, evaluation methods, and experimental set-ups for in situ investigation of layers and surfaces in liquid environments (reflection anisotropy, ellipsometry, Raman and infrared spectroscopy, IR microscopy, IR mapping ellipsometry at BESSY II). Combined laboratory and synchrotron measurements concentrate on the properties of functional layers and the adsorption of molecules on such surfaces, for example functional polymer brushes or specific linker films for bio- or solar cell applications. They are also developing measurement concepts for faster analyses with higher sensitivity and higher lateral resolution. www.isas.de/en/institute/departments/interface-analytics/ in-situ-spectroscopy Reflectometer system for large samples (sample diameter up to 1,500 mm, total load up to 800 kg) with integrated source and monochromator beam tube for the wavelength range 6 nm to 20 nm © BESTEC GmbH Imaging spectroscopy of optical layers Thin layers are used in optics to determine the reflection and transmission behaviour of surfaces and optical components for UV, VIS, and IR radiation in a targeted manner.
Cluster Report Optics and Photonics – Optical Analytics 53 Typical applications are the manufacture of reflecting elements (e.g. mirrors) or the anti-reflective coating on many optical surfaces (e.g. eyeglass lenses, objectives, prisms, displays, plates, and OLEDs). The main materials used are metals with high absorption or reflectivity and dielectric materials with high transparency. The NIR hyperspectral imaging camera “uniSPECx.xHSI” from LLA Instruments GmbH can measure the spectral characteristics of the reflection and transmission level of optical components in the wavelength range between 350 nm and 2,200 nm with spatial resolution. A typical application is automated full-surface material testing of spectacles or filter glasses with dielectric coatings directly after the evaporation process in the UV, VIS, and NIR spectral range. However, a great deal of attention is being paid to another application of LLA cameras: they can be used to classify plastic waste very quickly. For example, they can recognise PVC to allow for automatic sorting. www.lla-instruments.com Infrared thermography Today, non-contact temperature measurement with an infrared sensor is state of the art in almost every industrial sector or research laboratory. Berlin-based Optris GmbH develops, produces, and sells handheld laser thermometers, stationary pyrometers, and infrared cameras made in Germany. The measuring instruments are not only used in innovative fields such as 3D thermography, laser technology, and additive manufacturing, but also in classic processes such as in the steel and plastics industries. In the injection moulding process in the plastics industry, for example, 60 to 70% of all moulding defects responsible for inadequate quality and overly long cycle times are caused by improper control of the mould temperatures. High-resolution infrared cameras allow thermal faults to be detected inline as they occur. In this case, images of the moulded parts are created in each cycle and analysed using a reference image. An alarm is sounded if deviations are identified. Thermographic recording of a vehicle cockpit component with identified defect (left) and after optimisation (right) © GTT Willi Steinko GmbH Measurement technology for thin film processes Founded in 1999 as a spin-off of TU Berlin, LayTec AG has a leading position in process-integrated optical measurement technology for thin-film processes. The company’s measurement systems are used in various areas such as optoelectronics, electronics, photovoltaics, optics, photonics, and the semiconductor industry as well as in the manufacture of flat panel displays, memory chips, etc. They monitor the growth processes of crystal layers, for example, in metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The company uses and combines optical measurement techniques such as reflection, emissivity-corrected pyrometry, laser deflectometry, reflection anisotropy spectroscopy, and scattered light and photoluminescence measurements to monitor the fabrication of nanodimensioned thin film structures. Optical methods are used to check the temperature, dimensions, quality, and surface finish of each sample. This is done either in situ directly during the process or inline between the individual coating steps of multilayer structures, shortening the development cycles and increasing the process yield. www.laytec.de www.optris.com EpiTT in situ sensor to analyse growth during MOCVD and MBE processes © LayTec AG
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