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Cluster Report Photonics in the Capital Region Berlin-Brandenburg

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38 Cluster Report Optics and PhotonicsPhotonics and Quantum Technology for Communications and Sensors Element consisting of an integrated quantum optical chip © TU Berlin/AG Optoelektronik At the Institute for Solid State Physics of Technical University Berlin, Prof. Stephan Reitzenstein’s research group in optoelectronics and quantum devices developings nanophotonic devices based on semiconductor heterostructures. The infrastructure of the Center of Nanophotonics at the TU Berlin is available for their nanofabrication. One focus of the work is the study and targeted application of light-matter interactions in quantum optical regimes, which provide novel functionalities in quantum devices. One example are single photon sources for quantum cryptography. For this purpose, individual semiconductor quantum dots are integrated into nanophotonic structures and optimised for their emission properties using in situ electron beam lithography, a unique technology specially developed by the working group. Further work aims at quantum networks and at integrated quantum photonics and ultimate micro- and nanolasers with disappearing laser thresholds. The latter are not only very interesting from the perspective of theoretical physics but can also be used as nanophotonic hardware components in the field of neuromorphic computing. The FBH is very active in the field of modern quantum components. Together with Humboldt University Berlin, they are working on state-of-the-art laser technologies. In 2017, its technology was used in the first success in generating a special state of matter called a Bose Einstein condensate aboard a sounding rocket. These and other quantum technologies are used to research quantum optical sensors and other components for secure communication, quantum simulation and computing, quantum-assisted imaging, and spectroscopy. Coherent radiation sources are important for quantum optical applications and as well robustness and reliability for space technologies. For this purpose, FBH uses its competences in the fields of semiconductor, microwave and diode laser technology. This also includes hybrid photonic modules, integrated quantum sensors or nanostructured diamond systems. Such components as well as nonlinear optical quantum devices are relevant for quantum networks. The Fraunhofer HHI has comprehensive experience and expertise in designing, developing and prototyping photonic components and systems towards quantum communication and sensing. Their foundries offer rapid and flexible development and fabrication of photonic integrated circuits (PICs) and components. With the innovative PolyBoard platform, they offer hybrid integration of low loss free-space sections and bulk materials, such as Faraday rotators and nonlinear crystals for quantum applications, into PICs via micro-optical benches. For R&D purposes they offer a quantum testbed facility comprising optical free-space and fiber links. The DLR-Institute of Optical Sensor Systems develops active and passive optical sensor systems for spaceborne and airborne applications as well as for robotic systems. Quantum technologies are vital for the institute‘s mission. The research activities cover novel quantum materials, sensors and detectors with quantum-limited sensitivity. Quantum technologies of particalur interest are quantum light sources and quantum memories, as well as on applications of such devices in quantum communication and computing. The experts at Fraunhofer Institute for Reliability and Microintegration IZM are using their expertise in photonic system integration and miniaturization to find new solutions for the quantum age. This includes the integration of optical waveguides, design-based processing of tailored refractive index profiles, generation of strong evanescent fields in the immediate vicinity of quantum emitters, the trapping of neutral atoms in such evanescent fields or the coupling of optical fibers using innovative interconnection techniques. These technologies are also used for the production of future all-glass quantum chips.

Cluster Report Optics and PhotonicsPhotonics and Quantum Technology for Communications and Sensors 39 The Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) works on several fields of quantum technology, with a focus on quantum sensing and metrology. It supports the transfer of quantum technology from science to applications in industry and academia. The new Quantum Technology Competence Center coordinates these activities. At PTB’s site in Berlin the activities focus on quantum magnetometry and cryogenic sensors, for instance highly sensitive SQUIDs and optical magnetometry for Spin qubits in semiconductor materials are promising candidates as basic elements for quantum computers. For this reason, researchers at Leibniz Institute for Crystal Growth (IKZ) grow isotopically enriched thin-strained silicon layers between SiGe barriers by molecular beam epitaxy. Such a layer forms a quantum well for a two-dimensional electron gas. Top gates on such semiconductor structures electrostatically form the quantum dots which are hosting single electrons for spin manipulation. Light source (optical parametric amplifier) used to manu- facture networks of waveguides in glasses. © MBI Platform for polyphotonics © Fraunhofer HHI The Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI) conducts basic research in laser-matter interaction. Taming the unusual propagation scenarios of light in novel photonic devices offers unprecedented opportunities where optical quantum effects can be exploited. In the next years, the femtosecond-laser microprocessing group together with the group for theoretical optics & photonics will focus on making such chips reprogrammable, holding the promise to provide versatile optical circuits for classical and quantum-based applications. The quantum technology activities at Paul-Drude-Institut für Festkörperelektronik (PDI) are based on expertise in semiconductor nanostructure epitaxy as well as in phononics, quantum photonics, quantum transport and the manipulation of single atoms. Highlights combining these aspects of quantum technology include their hybrid opto-mechanical single-photon sources and spin processors. These rely on surface acoustic waves that transport spin-polarized electronic excitations and inject them into two-state centers, where they recombine and emit single photons. The researchers are also working on quantum circuits on a chip. This leads to quantum structures on semiconductor surfaces on an atomic scale and allows complete control of their properties. The goal is to implement such structures in quantum information technology in the future.

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