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58 Astronomy and

58 Astronomy and Aerospace 56 Astronomy and Aerospace Introduction When a new planetary mission reaches its objective, the whole world joins in the excitement via TV or the Internet. It is easy to forget the years spent in transit and, especially, the long period of development and testing of the extremely robust and high-performance technology on board the craft that preceded this milestone. Not only are many components for the aerospace industry being developed in Berlin and Brandenburg, there is also a sophisticated testing infrastructure here to qualify the hardware for space conditions. With the development of adaptive optics, astronomy has made considerable progress in the 21st century and overcome many limitations of ground-based observation – and in doing so has literally opened up new worlds. But here, too, the advanced technology developed by specialized institutions and networks in Berlin and Brandenburg often ends up in the background. As is so often the case in the astronomy and aerospace sectors, the technologies developed for these pursuits are transferred over to completely different fi elds where they help bring about technological advances. Astrophysical Research and Equipment Development The Leibniz-Institute for Astrophysics Potsdam (AIP) is dedicated to astrophysical inquiries ranging from the exploration of our sun to the evolution of the cosmos. The key areas of research are cosmic magnetic fields and extragalactic astrophysics as well as the development of research technology in the fields of spectroscopy, robotic telescopes, and e-science. A considerable part of the institute’s efforts are aimed at developing research technology in the fields of spectroscopy, robotic telescopes, and e-science. AIP is the successor to the Berlin Observatory, founded in 1700, and to the Astrophysical Observatory of Potsdam, founded in 1874. The latter was the world’s first observatory explicitly dedicated to the study of astrophysics. AIP has been a member of the Leibniz Association since 1992. Current projects include the Potsdam Echelle Polarimetric and Spectroscopic Instrument (PEPESI) for the Large Bionocular Telescope (LBT) in Arizona, USA as well as the automatic 1.2-m telescopes STELLA-Iand STELLA-II at the Izana Observatory in Tenerife, Spain. Fiber Optic Sensor Technology At innoFSPEC Potsdam, the project on “OH Emission Line Filters” for infrared night sky observation is concerned with the application of Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBGs). FBGs are complex gratings stamped into fibers which can be used to construct highly specialized line filters to suppress unwanted atmospheric oxygen and hydrogen lines in astronomical observations. This technology will play a fundamental role in the instrumentation used in the next generation of extremely large telescopes (ELT). innoFSPEC Potsdam is a joint undertaking of the Leibniz Institute for Astrophysics Potsdam (AIP) and the University of Potsdam (UP). Established as a center of innovative competence, innoFSPEC conducts research in “fiber optical spectroscopy and sensing”. In March 2015, innoF- SPEC received an additional five years’ funding from BMBF. | Lasers for the Aerospace Industry The SpaceX delivery to the International Space Station (ISS) on January 10, 2015 also included several DFB lasers from eagleyard photonics. The fi ber coupled laser diodes will be used there as a seed source component for a LiDAR system as part of the CATS (Cloud Aerosol Transport System) project. The laser diode produces beams at 1064 nm, 532 nm and 355 nm to determine the properties of cloud and aerosol layers. eagleyard photonics offers customized solutions for use in space. Laser diodes are the ideal light source for harsh operating conditions. Compact and robust, The two 12m telescopes STELLA-I and STELLA-II at the Izana Observatory on Tenerife, Spain © AIP eagleyard lasers in LiDAR systems © NASA/eagleyard Photonics GmbH

Astronomy and Aerospace 59 Cross-Innovation at its best! Interview with Prof. Dr. Martin Roth, Leibnitz Institute for Astrophysics Potsdam (AIP) Optical technologies are clearly key technologies in astrophysics – what technologies and developments are of particular importance at the moment? A special challenge for the next generation of ground-based Extra Large Telescopes (ELTs) involves the production of segmented mirrors for primary mirrors with diameters of more than 30 m – like for instance those in the European astronomy flagship project, 39-m E-ELT. It is not simply a matter of the industrial production of precision optics, but of serial production and integration into a hitherto unknown, highly complex system. We are likewise entering new territory with the production of extremely thin, deformable (adaptive) mirrors for the adaptive optics of the E-ELT. As for the development of focal instruments, increased telescope diameter means larger components will be required, so new solutions must be found for reflective and refractive optics, diffraction gratings and prisms, as well as for detector systems. A whole new area that we have only just begun to develop for use in astrophysics is astrophotonics, which involves the use of fiber optics and integrated optics for focal instruments. Together with the University of Potsdam, Charité and LMTB Laserund Medizin-Technologie GmbH from Berlin, your institute has solved a technological problem in multiplex spectroscopy with applications in cancer research. How does astrophysics provide support to this medical project? Physicians have, in principle, found in Raman spectroscopy a new minimally invasive optical method to diagnose cancer which can prevent the stress of a biopsy and the risk of metastasis. However, imaging is not possible with current state-of-the-art single-channel spectrographs, so this method is not really suitable for use in actual practice. Through knowledge and technology transfer, we have found a way to produce an imaging capability with multiplex spectrographs used in astrophysics. This is a big step forward. How did this unusual collaboration come about? The idea for a partnership between Charité – Universitätsmedizin, LMTB GmbH and AIP came about in the OptecBB network, specifically in the working group for Biomedical Optics. Since October 2013, thanks to funding from the BMBF VIP program, this interdisciplinary line-up has been working on validating the concept of “multiplex Raman spectroscopy from astrophysics for medicine.” Multidimensional spectroscopy is a special focus of the master plan for the photonics cluster. What topics in the master plan continue to play a role at your institute? In the field of “optical analytics” topics like “imaging and multi-dimensional data analysis” as well as “optical sensors and fiber optics” constitute important issues for the Center for Innovative Capacities, innoFSPEC Potsdam. With respect to “optics for communication and sensors”, topics such as “photonic systems integration” and “optical sensors” show special promise for cross innovation in connection with our research in the field of astrophotonics. Prof. Dr. Martin M. Roth Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP) Leibnitz Institute for Astrophysics innoFSPEC Potsdam An der Sternwarte 16 14482 Potsdam Email: After studying physics at LMU Munich, Prof. Dr. Martin Roth earned his PhD in astrophysics from the University Observatory in Munich (1993). This was followed by activities at the Wendelstein Observatory and at the European Southern Observatory (ESO) in Garching. Since 1994, he has been a researcher at the Leibniz Institute for Astrophysics Potsdam (AIP). In 2009, he initiated innoFSPEC Potsdam and was appointed professor at the University of Potsdam in 2011.

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