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56 Safety Technology

56 Safety Technology determine certain gas concentrations in explosion-proof environments. 1 Optical Security Technologies The Network Optical Security Technologies (nost), founded in 2102, is funded by the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy via the Central Innovation Program SME (Zentrales Innovationsprogramm Mittelstand – ZIM). The network is dedicated to the goal of bringing about the technical fusion of various sensor technologies as well as system integration. nost brings together medium-sized companies and research institutes from the field of optical security technologies and related technology fields and supplements their expertise with a sales platform for security systems that have yet to establish themselves in the marketplace. This makes it possible to create competitive synergies for the international market. Passenger Counting iris-GmbH offers sensors for automatic passenger counting which can be used to provide cheap, reliable and continuous data on the utilization of public transport systems. The count data acquired by the sensors will be used for operation optimisation, capacity planning or for revenue sharing. Ever since the early nineties, when the first electronic counting systems appeared, the InfraRed Motion Analyzer (IRMA) by iris has been the principal system in use around the world for passenger counting. The most recent product family IRMA MATRIX counts with 3D industrial vision. This enables reliable detection at all environmental conditions and accurate counting also in crowded situations. The sensors are in operation for example at BVG Berlin and German regional trains, also in Munich, Geneva, Los Angeles, Houston, Montreal, Shanghai, Abu Dhabi and at further more than 250 transport operators worldwide. Remote Fire Detection via IR Sensors For several years now, satellite data have been used to assess a variety of forest fire parameters. A major limitation of existing sensors is that they have a relatively poor spatial resolution of 1 km per pixel at best. Typically, only fires with an energy output of more than 10 megawatts (= flaming vegetation fire of approximately 200m 2 ) can be reliably detected. This means that up to 50% of all fires are not covered by currently available satellite systems. The German Aerospace Center’s (DLR) FIREBIRD mission based on the satellites TET-1 and BIROS is designed to help significantly reduce existing uncertainties and gaps in detection. Together with systems that are already in orbit, TET-1 and BIROS are to act as “fire scopes.” On the one hand, this will close the significant observation gap with respect to the high number of small fires (with an upward energy output between 1 and 10 MW) so that many more fires can be detected. On the other hand, the TET-1 / BIROS mission will be used to validate and fine-tune emission assessment from spatially less well-defined data that are obtained, for instance, with geostationary satellites at short intervals. Both satellites are based on the technological experience that DLR was able to obtain during the BIRD mission from IRMA Matrix automatic passenger counting device © iris GmbH BIROS-Sensors © DLR 1

Safety Technology 57 2001 to 2004. The smallest burn zone recorded with BIRD was 12 m². The heart of the TET-1 and BIROS payload is the same as that of the BIRD satellites: a bi-spectral infrared sensor developed at the DLR Institute of Robotics and Mechatronics and the DLR Institute of Optical Sensor Systems that can record signals in the central and thermal spectral range. Another three-channel camera covers the range of visible light and near-infrared. The entire electronic system was redeveloped for this purpose. TET-1 / BIROS can provide data on fires at a much higher spatial resolution (approx. 200 m compared to the more than 1 km per pixel available up until now). Another unique feature is the real-time adjustment of sensor integration time: If the data recorded and processed onboard is suspected of saturating the signal, then a second exposure with a shorter integration time is triggered. This smart technology resolves the problem of saturation encountered with extremely hot fires. 2 Linking Aerial Photographs and Ground- Based Data for Disaster Situations Large scale events and disasters place significant demands on public authorities and organizations with security responsibilities. Within a short period of time, they have to make decisions and manage the event in a safe and efficient manner. At the same time, they have to minimize the consequences for the general public. This is why powerful tools are being developed in the VABENE++ project at the DLR Institute of Transportation Systems. For instance, as part of a Medical Task Force exercise a high-resolution 4k camera system was used on a DLR research helicopter to provide precise pictures of the mission area. The data obtained were processed on board and transmitted via microwave data link directly to the operation control. In combination with ground-based sensor systems for traffic monitoring the camera data provided Airborne observation of the patient transfer with the 4K camera system developed in the VABENE++ project © DLR additional information for the position detection and visualization of the “bigger picture”. Terahertz Technology Terahertz (THz) radiation has long proved difficult to generate. It has numerous applications, however, such as in detecting non-metallic weapons and explosives or for use in food inspection. THz radiation is also now being used in many studies in the fields of solid state physics, astronomy, biology as well as in environmental monitoring. To facilitate the generation of THz radiation and promote commercial applications, several Berlin institutes and companies have joined together in the project entitled “Terahertz Quantum Cascade Lasers for Spectroscopic Applications.” The Paul-Drude-Institut (PDI) and the HU Berlin have been investigating semiconductor theory and working with semiconductor wafers. Grids were added at Ferdinand-Braun-Institute, while micro-assembly and testing of the quantum cascade laser (QCL) took place at eagleyard photonics. The main advantage of the new product is that it does not require a liquid helium cooling system for the QCL since its working temperature is between 40 and 80 K, which makes sterling or nitrogen-based cooling possible. | 3 4 | 5 2 3 4 5

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