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Optical Analytics in the Capital Region Berlin-Brandenburg

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50 Thin

50 Thin Film Analysis measurements from 0.2 µm up to 1.25 mm (terahertz) as well as the identification of optical constants n(λ), k(λ). In addition, OUT eV. offers a variety of photometric measurements of LEDs and small radiation resources: • luminous flux (lm), radiant flux (W) • luminous intensity (cd) and radiant intensity (W/sr) • angle of radiation, directional characteristics • luminous flux distribution body • color temperature distribution body • color rendering index (CRI, Ra, ...) • color temperature (CRT) • color coordinates x, y (CIE 1931) or Luv (CIE 1976) • spectral resolved measurements of the bidirectional scatter function (BSDF) of solid surfaces between 198 and 1115 nm • reflection spectrogram for azimuth and elongation -90° till +90° between 198 and 1115 nm X-Ray Fluorescence Scanning Electron Microscope A new wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (WDS) for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was developed at the Institute for Nanometer Optics and Technology (INT) at the Helmholtz Center Berlin in cooperation with the Insti- Unraveling the Mysteries of Paintings Using Bruker’s M6 JETSTREAM Micro-XRF scanner Micro X-ray fluorescence analysis (micro-XRF) has proven a valuable tool in archaeometry and restoration. This technique helps us to better understand artistic processes, discover hidden works, and supports restorers as they preserve important works of art. “Pentimenti” (Italian, plural of “remorse”) are traces of alterations to paintings. They are commonly analyzed with ultraviolet light or X-ray radiography to discover what is now covered with new layers of paint. However, using micro-XRF for this purpose provides a wealth of additional information: the opportunity to do element analysis not makes it possible to see the original hidden beneath subsequently altered areas, but also to determine the composition of all the inorganic pigments that were used. Learning about the pigments used during a given time period sheds light on the ones used later in the areas that were covered with new layers of paint. Also, alterations were made to the clothes worn by Mrs. Moreel and her eldest daughter. This information can be taken from the scattered radiation map; the décolleté of both mother and daughter appears darker. A red without mercury was used to paint St. Barbara’s skirt. The vermillion (containing mercury and therefore red) used on the left arm and bodice was probably added during a later restoration phase. An impressive example is provided to Bruker Nano by Prof. Koen Janssens, Professor of Analytical Chemistry, and Dr. Geert van der Snickt of the University of Antwerp, Belgium. It shows the analysis of the right panel of a triptych painted by Hans Memling for the Moreels, an influential family from Bruges. Here, Mrs. Moreel kneels next to St. Barbara. Behind her are 11 of her daughters. The analysis of the upper half of the right panel using the M6 JETSTREAM provides some remarkable findings. The lower part of the image below shows a map of the top half of the right panel of the triptych. It is an overlay of the copper (green), mercury (red) and scattered primary radiation (white) maps. The copper distribution shows that the original version of the panel contained only four of her daughters. The others were obviously added later and painted on top of the landscape in the background. Bruker’s M6 JETSTREAM large object Micro XRF scaner in front of the right panel of the Moreel triptych. Courtesy University of Antwerp, Belgium. © University of Antwerp, Belgium

Thin Film Analysis 51 tute for Scientific Instruments (IfG) and the Institute for Applied Photonics e.V. (IAP) in Adlershof. With an array of 17 reflection zone plates, this spectrometer covers an energy range of 50 eV to 1,120 eV. This makes it possible to measure X-ray emission spectra from light elements in the soft X-ray range. A version with 200 reflection zone plates was used as a multi-channel analyzer for quasi-continuous spectra measurements in the energy range of 100-1000 eV. The expected energy resolution of E/ΔE ~ 100 was achieved across the entire energy range. 3 | New X-ray Analytical Methods For the investigation of nano-structured material, such as solar cells, depth resolution in the nm-range is necessary. For this purpose, new synchrotron-based techniques such as reference-free grazing incidence XRF (GIXRF) and near edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (NEXAFS) are currently being developed by the Analytical X-ray spectroscopy group at the TU Berlin in close cooperation with The National Metrology Institute of Germany (PTB) at the electron storage facility BESSY II. 3 (Left) Upper half of the right panel of the Moreel triptych. (Right) Composite elemental image showing the distributions of copper (green), mercury (red) and the total scattering intensity (the more tube radiation that is scattered, the brighter the area appears). © University of Antwerp, Belgium

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Life Sciences Report 2015
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