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Cluster Report Photonics in the Capital Region Berlin-Brandenburg

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5.2.1 Wide Bandgap

5.2.1 Wide Bandgap Semiconductors Berlin WideBaSe: industry and science cooporate to produce semiconductors with wide bandgap Nicolas Hübener, Klaus Jacobs Wide bandgap semiconductors (WideBaSe) are compound semiconductors such as gallium phosphide, gallium nitride, aluminum nitride, zinc oxide, titanium oxide or silicon carbide as well as mixed crystals among them. The properties of these materials (wide band gap, sometimes efficient emission in the ultraviolet (UV) spectral range, high dielectric strength, high charge carrier mobility, excellent thermal conductivity, and response even at very high temperatures) make high-performance systems in high frequency technology and power electronics possible, with many applications in communications, transportation and energy technologies, as well as in security systems. Compact and efficient radiation sources and receivers in the blue and ultraviolet spectral range can be produced with these semiconductors, enabling new applications, e.g. in the areas of lighting, display technology, medical and safety technologies, as well as environmental technology, with annual growth rates up to 30% (Yole Développement, 2011). In the Berlin-Brandenburg area, there is a Europe-wide virtually unique concentration and competence in researching, developing, manufacturing and marketing of wide band gap semiconductor materials and devices based on them. Institutions are active along the entire value chain, from materials research and development, plant production, epitaxy, process and chip development, to system integration. The growth core, Berlin WideBaSe Since July 2010, 13 partners, ten companies and three research institutes, are cooperating in the innovative regional growth core, Berlin WideBaSe. Through cooperation and sharing of resources and creation of resources, the companies and research institutions in this network can extend their own portfolios and improve their positions in markets already served, as well as tap into new Microoptic Systems Optoelectronic Devices Processing & Assembly Crystal Growth & Epitaxy III-Nitrides Berlin WideBaSe application fields © „Berlin WideBaSe“ & Measurement Wide Bandgap Semiconductors Electronic Devices Characterization Design & Simulation Substrates Characterization & Measurement Facilities markets. Along value chains, for example, equipment manufacturers such as Sentech Instruments and LayTec profit from direct feedback from facility users and the ability to jointly develop complete processes. Pyro 400 allows accurate surface temperature measurement in GaN growth processes © LayTec AG Through its collaboration the company CrysTec can extend its portfolio to AlN substrates. The component manufacturers Jenoptik Optische Systeme, OSA Opto Light, eagleyard Photonics, Berlin Microwave Technologies and GloMic can jointly use process steps and equipment in device fabrication, thereby ensuring a better return on investment and lowering cost of process development. In parallel, RTG Mikroanalyse develops analytical services for nitrides. Through close cooperation within Berlin WideBaSe between the companies and the Ferdinand-Braun-Institute, Leibniz Institute for Highest Frequency Technology (FBH), the Leibniz-Institute for Crystal Growth (Leibniz-Institut für Kristallzüchtung) and the Technical University of Berlin, even research-intensive technological requirements can be satisfied in a demand-driven and timely manner. Furthermore, the academic institutions also contribute to reducing time and cost of technological development via modeling and simulation of new devices and processes. Through coverage of the entire value chain, the aforementioned component manufacturers, but also end users such as Osram, secure suppliers in the region. All partners are located within a radius of 25 km; the focus is on the science and technology parks Adlershof and Wuhlheide. Face to face meetings, voting, material and personnel exchange, as well as joint use of laboratories is easily possible because of this proximity. 88

5.2.1 Wide Bandgap Semiconductors Components for the UV spectral region A focal point within Berlin WideBaSe is the development of optoelectronic components for the UV spectral region. UV LEDs are, for example, used in the areas of disinfection, medical phototherapy or exposure, paint curing, and lithography. In the future, UVC LEDs will replace conventional mercury vapor lamps, which are large, not very durable, spectrally not optimally adapted, and not very energy efficient. Moreover, they contain heavy metals and must be disposed of separately. At the present time, Berlin Wide- BaSe concentrates on focusable LEDs in the UVA and UVB ranges for medical technology, measurement technology and sensors, as well as large-area LEDs for power applications such as UV curing or medical applications. Generation of microwave power The second focus in Berlin WideBaSe concerns concepts and technologies for highly efficient generation of microwave power. Thereby the Berlin partners respond to sustained changes in the global market that are expected for all types of microwave power generation and microwave broadcasting systems, in all performance classes and frequency bands. This also creates greater demands on the amplifiers. Amplifiers with the necessary high efficiencies can be realized only with gallium nitride devices in conjunction with the new amplifier architectures. This affects all wireless services: radio, television, mobile, directional and satellite broadcasting. Among them are the new services for radio and television, digital audio broadcasting (DAB) and digital video broadcasting terrestrial (DVBT), as well as the new wireless Metropolitan Area Networks (MAN) such as WIMAX. Cross-cutting technologies Accompanying the focus areas optoelectronics and electronics, the third focus is on cross-cutting technologies. For example, for the first time, analytical services for nitrides are being calibrated over the entire composition range by the company RTG Mikroanalyse and thereby made available quantitatively. Thanks to Berlin WideBaSe, the development of AlN substrates is advanced, which will be important owing to the good lattice matching to the active layers for both UV LEDs with wavelengths below 300 nm and because of good thermal conductivity in power electronics. By establishing the alliance Berlin WideBaSe, which is supported by the Federal Ministry for Education and Research within their “enterprise-region” funding concept, the first-class equipment and facilities of the participating research institutions can be used in close cooperations with regional companies to the benefit of the corporate partners. As part of this collaboration, currently existing gaps in the supply chain are covered by the research institutions. In the midterm, these may be closed by new companies or joint investments. Particularly in the areas of epitaxial AlN substrate development and epitaxy, great potential exists for newly established companies. Even sharing the more expensive process infrastructure in terms of a semiconductor foundry is already being considered. This could directly benefit the companies involved, but indirectly also companies and academic institutions operating in the application areas of medical, environmental, transportation, information and communication technologies which gain access to components not currently available on the market. Contact: Nicolas Hübener Phone: +49 (0)30 / 6392 3396 Email: Prof. Dr. Klaus Jacobs Phone: +49 (0)30 / 6392 2799 Email: Ferdinand-Braun-Institut, Leibniz-Institut für Höchstfrequenztechnik (FBH) Current-mode class-S-amplifier © FBH/ Since frequency band resources are becoming scarcer, new transmission techniques with improved spectral efficiency are required; the linearity of transmission systems must also be developed further using gallium nitride components. As part of Berlin Wide- BaSe, such microwave amplifiers are being developed with output powers of several hundred watts and efficiencies of more than 70%, both for applications in communication technology as well as for technical high-frequency applications, for example for plasma generation. 89

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