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Cluster Report Photonics in the Capital Region Berlin-Brandenburg

  • Text
  • Imaging
  • Photonics
  • Berlin
  • Optical
  • Laser
  • Technologies
  • Optics
  • Microsystems
  • Components
  • Brandenburg

5.1.3.2 UV and X-ray

5.1.3.2 UV and X-ray Technologies UV and X-ray light is the light of micro- and nanotechnologies Robert Wagner, Birgit Kanngießer, Frank Lerch, Gerrit Rössler, Kai Kolwitz UV and X-ray technologies expand the scope of optical technologies to the smallest spatial and temporal dimensions. They make nanostructures visible as well as ultra-fast processes. Thereby they contribute to the advancement of medicine and nanotechnology - key areas of 21st century research. In the Berlin-Brandenburg region, the technology has a long tradition that goes back into the late 19th century. Some of the first X-ray tubes with which Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen experimented after 1895 were made in Berlin by Reinhold Burger. The region is home to market leaders and specialists Where technology is developing dynamically, perspectives for the economy arise. Berlin-Brandenburg will also benefit from this trend, since the region is home to a significant number of providers in this segment. One example is Bruker Nano in Berlin-Adlershof. Components for material analysis are this company’s business. On the world market it ranks number three in the field of energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis, the identification of the composition of substances by irradiation with X-rays. Today, Berlin and Brandenburg have unique potential in this field and an internationally prominent position. In innovative companies, the region offers the entire value chain, from basic research to product development. Internationally unique research opportunities For example, look at the Helmholtz-Center Berlin (HZB). It offers unique experimental possibilities due to its large appliances used for research with photons and neutrons, not least thanks to BESSY, the Berlin electron storage ring for synchrotron radiation, and thanks to the cooperation between the HZB and Hamburg DE- SY for the construction of a free electron laser. In addition, the HZB acts as a developer and provider of X-ray technology components. Thus, the Institute of Nanometer Optics and Technology at HZB is one of the world's leading institutions for quality control and characterization of X-ray optics for synchrotron radiation. A technology center for highly efficient precision gratings has been launched in 2010. It seeks new geometries for diffraction gratings and methods for high-precision manufacturing of thousands of grid lines per millimeter. In terms of X-ray technologies, the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI) and the Ferdinand-Braun-Institute, Leibniz-Institute for Highest Frequency Technology (FBH) are also among the major international research institutions. Additionally, there are laboratories for research, testing and standards, first and foremost the Physikalisch- Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) and BAM - Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing). The Adlershof Institut für angewandte Optik IAP (Institute for Applied Photonics) works, as a private nonprofit industry research organization, on projects in basic and applied research in X-ray physics and technology, and it organizes the conference for process-level X-ray analysis – PRORA every two years. EUV reflectometer system © Bestec GmbH Others are smaller but highly specialized: The Bestec GmbH manufactures components for synchrotrons and reflectometer systems with which the surfaces of mirrors for the far-UV region can be quality-checked. The company sglux offers optical and electronic products for measurement, control and monitoring of UV radiation which are largely based on UV-SiC photodiodes. The Crystal GmbH offers optical components, which can direct and filter radiation. A place for fruitful cooperation Berlin Laboratory for innovative X-ray Technologies (BLiX) © TU Berlin The high level of innovation is only possible because research institutions and companies in Berlin-Brandenburg closely cooperate. In order to promote technology transfer in this field even furt- 62

5.1.3.2 UV and X-ray Technologies her, the “Berlin Laboratory for innovative X-ray Technologies” (BLix) opened in 2010. It is located at the endowed chair for “Analytical X-ray Physics” at the TU Berlin and is operated together with the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy. BLiX is intended to be a site of joint technology development at the interfaces between research, education and innovation. It shall initiate cooperation projects for technology and product development and international flagship projects of research, with a view to the application of X-ray-engineering methods in optical and nano-technologies as well as in micro-systems technology. To this end, BLiX is equipped with high class technical equipment: Since the end of 2011 a newly developed laboratory X-ray microscope (L-TXM) is available, a laboratory spectrometer for three-dimensional micro-resolved X-ray fluorescence analysis (3D Micro- XRF) and a Von-Hamos-spectrometer for chemical speciation in the laboratory, among others. The cooperation between enterprises and research in the region has received many awards. One example is the IfG Institute for Scientific Instruments GmbH’s femtosecond x-ray source. The first prototype was jointly developed by IfG and the group of Prof. Thomas Elsässer of the MBI. Together with the University of Potsdam a marketable product, which provides X-ray pulses in the 100-femtosecond range and allows laboratory experiments that so far had only been possible with large scale devices such as a synchrotron or free electron lasers, was developed. The development was acknowledged with the 2010 Innovation Award Berlin- Brandenburg. Medical technology as a driver, material analysis among the world’s best One focus of X-ray technologies is imaging processes, such as tomography, X-ray microscopy, but also holography or coherent diffraction. A major driver for this is medical technology, and X- ray analysis of materials and structures are big topics. In this field there is unique expertise in the region. Technology from Berlin- Brandenburg was used to investigate the deep layers of the famous Dead Sea Scrolls non-destructively. That happened with a 3D micro X-ray fluorescence analysis, newly developed by scientists at the TU Berlin. Scientists from BAM, TU and BESSY were represented in the international team that examined the scrolls. The analysis of materials and structures via X-ray radiation plays a major role also for the development of future technologies. The technology takes an important place in the competence center for thin-film- and nano-technology for photovoltaics (PVcomB), founded by the HZB and TU. The regionally available analytical skills should help to increase the efficiency of solar cells, for example, by examining new materials via X-rays and characterizing their properties. Analytical X-ray instrumentation, however, displays the main part of applications. It is important, in order to ensure that people stay healthy and industrial goods work as requested. For example, look at the trace element analysis by X-ray with which can be monitored whether nourishments contain only what is permitted. Or the error and contamination detection in general manufacturing processes. Lots to do for researchers and developers The requirements of future technologies result in focal points for researchers and developers in the region. Some of these are new generations of X-ray tubes, new X-ray optics and X-ray capillary optics, especially HOPG optics (highly oriented pyrolytic graphite) and Fresnel-Bragg lenses as well as other, more powerful X-ray semiconductor detectors, laser-based X-ray sources for the soft and medium X-ray range, especially for pulses in the femtosecond to nanosecond range, and chemical speciation methods that are independent of synchrotrons and large equipment. Microfocus X-ray source with capillary optics iMOXS © IfG Institute for Scientific Instruments GmbH In general, IfG is strongly influenced by research and development. It produces a wide range of X-ray capillary optics, micro-and nano-structured glass products, X-ray sources (iMOXS), for instance for X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence analysis - the latter also as an additional module for the attachment to scanning electron microscopes. X-ray fluorescence analysis is used in measurement heads for process control, which for example monitor the production of photovoltaic elements. And an “X-ray color-camera” from IfG can simultaneously register spatially resolved X- ray light at different wavelengths. It thus provides an overview of the distribution of elements in samples. Scientists and companies in Berlin-Brandenburg will not run out to work anytime soon. And with every step forward in research, material analysis via X-rays will advance other technologies, especially when it comes to resolving small and very small structures. UV and X-rays are the light of micro-and nano-technologies – and, therefore, one of their most important tools. Contact: Prof. Dr. Birgit Kanngießer Technical University Berlin Email: birgit.kanngiesser@tu-berlin.de 63

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