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Cluster Report Photonics in the Capital Region Berlin-Brandenburg

  • Text
  • Imaging
  • Photonics
  • Berlin
  • Optical
  • Laser
  • Technologies
  • Optics
  • Microsystems
  • Components
  • Brandenburg

5.1.3.1 Optical Process

5.1.3.1 Optical Process Metrology Light rays monitor production Norbert Esser, Ulrich Panne, Gerrit Rössler, Kai Kolwitz Optical measurement methods can be used in many areas of industrial creation of added value. Especially if it is possible to automate measurement technology and integrate it on-line and insitu in manufacturing processes – in other words: carry out measurements continuously and automatically and initiate resulting corrections without the need to interrupt current production. Increasingly, optical methods replace the traditional sampling in industrial production: extinction, absorption, scattering or reflection measurements allow statements about the properties of the substances produced. Such measurements, performed with light of different wavelengths, allow comprehensive statements about the properties of the investigated material and the progress of reaction processes. In the end, does the product have the desired quality? Are reaction temperature and speed within the defined limits? and VUV ellipsometry, reflectance anisotropy spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and atomic absorption and emission spectrometry to measure ultra-thin layers, very small structures, and minimal amounts of material. At ISAS work is done to continuously improve these methods. It is important to increase the sensitivity, to extend the usable spectral range, to increase spectral resolution, and to increase spatial and temporal resolution. The more accurate and faster optical measurement methods work, the more applications can be tapped into. Structures interesting and relevant for material science are getting smaller, down to the molecular and atomic level. And in bioanalytics one must determine ever new substances and lowest concentrations using optical methods. Thereby, biological processes can be better understood and new medical therapies can be developed. In mixing processes, the ratio of the basic substances in the mixed product can be optically checked if it is right. Optical measurements are also important for checking surfaces and surface processes - whether in semiconductor technology, photovoltaics, surface treatments, or to assess the quality of lacquers and other coatings. Production processes are continuously monitored by optical methods, the blind spots between individual controls is eliminated. Thus, systems can run longer and the reject rate can be reduced. Furthermore, the data obtained can be used to automatically adjust processes. And even for that the machines must no longer be stopped. New materials and production processes require new testing methods New methods of optical process metrology benefit the economic viability of many future technologies. A particular focus in this context is the control of interfaces and thin films layers. The methods play an important role for quality control in industrial growing of semiconductor crystals and in the production of LEDs and solar cells. These technologies are emphasized areas of research and development in Berlin and Brandenburg. Regional research institutions active in this area, often also do research on methods needed to monitor production quality. Thus, optical spectroscopy, material analysis, and boundary layer spectroscopy are major themes of the Leibniz-Institut für Analytische Wissenschaften - ISAS (Leibniz-Institute for Analytical Sciences). At their Berlin location they deal with methods such as IR Optical monitoring of electro-chemical deposition of thin polymer films on silicon by reflectance anisotropy spectroscopy (RAS) © ISAS in cooperation with LayTec AG and HZB Optical measurement techniques make the production of medications safer The BAM - Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing) in Berlin has extensive core competencies in optical measurement methods. Their focus is on issues including the durability of materials, components and structures as well as wear analysis and durability of polymers. In addition, they conduct research to develop new optical methods for industrial process analysis and the investigation of the environmental factors air, soil, water, wastewater and waste. 58

5.1.3.1 Optical Process Metrology Using a variety of on-line and in-situ techniques, optical process analysis at BAM tries to gain a more detailed insight into chemical processes and procedures. They work, for example, with fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy, but also with laser-induced plasma spectroscopy and with conventional infrared and near-infrared spectroscopy. Such methods are relevant, among other things, with regard to the manufacture of drugs, since the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) under its PAT initiative (process analysis technology) forces the introduction of strict production accompanying controls. But also in the chemical industry, biotechnology and food technology many new approaches to strategies for process control have been introduced in recent years, such as developments in the areas of miniaturization, high throughput analysis, and modeling of processes. In their research on process analytics, BAM has many different goals in mind. It is important to gain a better understanding of dynamic production processes. This allows establishment of cleaner and safer production processes, will improve the quality of end products, and lower production costs. Sorting recyclables quickly and automatically Optical measurement techniques can, for example, be used in order to make better use of resources: In a joint project between BAM, ISAS and other partners, therefore, innovative methods of fiber-coupled multi-channel spectroscopy for recycling processes are currently being tested. In the future, they want to be able to better separate trash into its components. In addition to protecting the environment, there is also a strong economic motivation: High value creation in recycling is only possible with pure starting material. In order for a sorting system to operate economically, it must precisely separate the individual substances from each other and yet be able to process large quantities in a short time. The quality of recycling in waste streams depends critically on the determination of minor constituents. Therefore, the project partners are committed to a rapid and sensitive multi-element analysis technique such as laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), which allows a direct analysis of solids and other material flows. By multiplexing with novel echelle spectrographs and with corresponding multivariate approaches to quantifying, materials can be sorted quickly, reliably and without contact. This process is also interesting for applications beyond material recycling. Semiconductors, solar cells and LEDs – high tech in production control Berlin and Brandenburg are among the most innovative German locations in photovoltaics and LED technology. And, of course, where such components are developed and produced, new companies are founded that provide the technology needed to ensure manufacturing quality. One example is LayTec. Founded in 1999 as a spin-off of the TU Berlin, in 2011 the company is ranked 8th, as leader of the Berlin- Brandenburg region, among the fastest growing technology companies in Germany and was awarded for the third consecutive year the Deloitte Technology Fast 50 Award. LayTec has developed a leading position in the field of process-integrated optical metro- In-situ sensor EpiTT for growth analysis during MOCVD and MBE processes © LayTec AG logy for thin film processes. Their products are used for the development and manufacture of light emitting diodes, semiconductor lasers, solar cells and other thin film devices. They monitor the growth processes of required crystal layers, such as metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The company leverages and combines optical measurement techniques such as reflection, emissivity-corrected pyrometry, laser deflectometry, reflectance anisotropy spectroscopy, scattered light and photoluminescence measurements to monitor the production of nano-sized thin film structures. Thus, they use optical methods to examine temperature, size, quality and texture of the elements to be checked. This is done either directly during the process or between each coating step of multilayer structures - and thus shortens development cycles and increases the process yield. The Berlin greateyes GmbH specializes in the testing of solar cells. Greateye’s systems use electrical and photo-luminescence to inspect cells, modules and wafers for cracks, inhomogeneities and other defects. The company received the Innovation Award Berlin- Brandenburg in 2010 for their LED-based photoluminescence inspection system LumiSolarCell. In addition, greateyes offers CCD cameras which can detect radiation from the near-infrared to the ultraviolet range and can be utilized for a wide range of spectroscopic applications. 59

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