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Cluster Report Photonics in the Capital Region Berlin-Brandenburg

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5.1.2 Lighting Technology standards in assembly, bonding and mounting, and tries to make production processes as efficient as possible. In addition, the IZM is working on converter foils which are supposed to guarantee a homogeneous white LED light. Films for the production of white light usually don’t have the same thickness, which leads to color distortions. Therefore a special film process was developed with which free-standing and completely flat films can be created. These are not - as usually done – applied during the course of LED creation, but are applied accessorily. In contrast, the Fraunhofer-Institute for Applied Polymer Research (IAP) in Potsdam-Golm is interested in more fundamental issues: Researchers look for new polymer-based materials and basic processes that can be used for OLEDs in the future. They cooperate with other Fraunhofer institutes and industrial partners in order to cover the entire spectrum in this area, from basic research to development of methods for the production of OLED displays. UV-LEDs on GaN basis for applications in water disinfection © FBH/Schurian In this context, they also work to develop a spot-light source for the range of 360 to 365 nanometers, in form of a system into which the lensfor pre-collimation is already integrated. Other individual projects deal with power LED chips for the wavelength range from 300 to 350 nanometers with power dissipation of 1.5 W, and the development and evaluation of enclosures and optical systems for UV LEDs. Sharing knowledge A number of initiatives coordinate and network the diverse lighting technology activities in the region. For instance, the optics industry association OpTecBB has a focus group on lighting which cooperates with the Berlin-Brandenburg section of the Lichttechnischen Gesellschaft (Lighting Engineering Society) and the Förderverein für Lichttechnik (Foundation for Light Engineering) at the TU Berlin, among others. Homogeneous white light © Fraunhofer IZM The Ferdinand-Braun-Institute, Leibniz-Institute for Highest Frequency Technology (FBH) is also active in LED technology. They are interested primarily in the development of LEDs in the ultraviolet wavelength range from 400 to less than 250 nanometers. The research is motivated by a variety of applications that can be achieved with such devices. Light of these wavelengths could be used, for example, to purify water and sterilize food; it could be used in communications technology as well as in industrial production processes in medical technology, sensors or bioanalytics. First LEDs with a wavelength of 375 nanometers and an output power of more than four mW have already been demonstrated. At the moment they work to progressively approach shorter wavelengths. Together they organize exchanges of experience and workshops in which concepts such as innovative lighting through the use of LED technology are discussed. Also research institutions like OUT e.V., Fraunhofer IZM, and Fraunhofer IAP, and companies like FutureLED and Selux, organize seminars and meetings for experts - the excellent co-operation is one of the greatest strengths of the region, strongly supported by all players. Berlin was and is the city of light. And the wealth of existing skills in the region can hardly be found anywhere else within such a small area. Contact: Prof. Dr. Stephan Völker Institute of Lighting Technology, Technical University of Berlin Phone: +49 (0)30 / 314 22 277 Email: LEDs for the ultraviolet region are also one of the themes of Berlin WideBaSe (see chapter 5.2.1), in which the FBH cooperates with the TU Berlin and the companies eagleyard Photonics, Lay- Tec, OSA Opto Light, Osram and Jenoptik Polymer Systems, among others. The aim of the network is the development of opto-electronic and electronic devices based on wide-bandgap semiconductors. 50

5.1.2 Lighting Technology “Berlin is the German birthplace of electrical lighting” Interview with Prof. Dr. Stephan Völker about lighting technology Berlin-Brandenburg is positioned well to very well in many areas of science and research. But then the value chain is frequently interrupted. What is the state of lighting technology in the area and what improvements would be desirable? A hundred years ago, Berlin - then adorned with the nickname Electropolis - was the German birthplace of electric lighting. This electrical engineering capital of Europe, marked by huge production capacity and excellence in science and technology, saw a considerable shrinkage of the once 600,000 industrial jobs at the end of the Second World War and during and after the 45-year division of Germany. Although announced for many years as revolutionizing, lighting technology will have to wait several years for the “luminous wallpaper”. White light is produced by OLED panel radiators without phosphors by stacked layers of emission for the three primary colors. The development, however, still struggles with basic problems in terms of efficiency, durability and cost. Leading manufacturers already offer public trial samples for several years. Since 2010 the type Orbeos is commercially available from Osram. A large production plant is currently being built by Philips in Aachen. It seems unlikely, though, that a mild interior illumination with areal light sources will gain ground during the next few years. The interview was conducted by Markus Wabersky and Arild Eichbaum Currently, in the field of lighting technology, there is Osram Berlin with a major production of gas discharge lamps (with associated research and development capabilities), and there are several medium-sized light metering technology companies and lighting manufacturers. Our current cooperation of science and research with the value chain is predominantly nationally oriented, while there is direct co-operation among the above mentioned companies. The forthcoming energy transition and the widening ban on incandescent lighting fixtures foster alternative light fixtures. LEDs are assumed to be favorites. What developments and technical innovations are available in this area? With the first light emitting diode in 1968, a development started that opens up – through constant innovation – new application fields, now also in general lighting - while displacing conventional light sources. Among the latest models available now from leading manufacturers, for example, are types that achieve the light output of conventional 75-watt bulbs while consuming only 12 W of power. Despite their lifespan of 25,000 hours, widespread introduction is only hampered by a price of about 40 Euro. As one can expect rapid advancements because of increased competition, a speedy replacement of the existing energy-saving fluorescent lamps with folded discharge tubes is in sight. The color quality and the color temperature can be varied over a wide range by the luminescent material used, so that one could produce - in principle – the right light even for rather demanding lighting situations. The dangers of discharge lamps because of the toxic mercury contained would be eliminated as well. OLEDs - organic LEDs are the future technology with completely new applications. What is the status of development and what applications might be possible in the future? Since 2008, Prof. Dr. Stephan Völker is Head of the Department of Lighting Technology at the Technical University of Berlin. Since 2011, he is Vice Dean of the Faculty IV for Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. He is Deputy Chairman of the German Lighting Engineering Society. His research focuses on light and radiation measuring devices, light sources, mesopic vision, light, health and work performance, energy-efficient lighting, innovative lighting systems, and daylight. Before he came to the Technical University Berlin, he worked at the company Hella in the area of automotive lighting. For his habilitation, he received the German Road Safety Award in 2006 from the Minister of Transportation, Wolfgang Tiefensee. © Photo: Jonas Groß 51

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