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Cluster Report Photonics in the Capital Region Berlin-Brandenburg

  • Text
  • Imaging
  • Photonics
  • Berlin
  • Optical
  • Laser
  • Technologies
  • Optics
  • Microsystems
  • Components
  • Brandenburg

3 History Degea plant

3 History Degea plant in Berlin © Osram AG Berlin were successfully introduced to the market (Bilux, low sodium pressure lamps, mercury vapor lamps, fluorescent lamps). In 1935, Osram GmbH acquired Bergmann-Elektrizitätswerke in Seestrasse in Wedding which produced light bulbs since 1906. Subsequently, this location (Werk B) was expanded into the central site for the production of light bulbs while other plants took on a supplier role. Osram headquarters remained in Berlin-Friedrichshain (Werk D) until 1945. During WW II, numerous production facilities were relocated. Nevertheless, many sites were partially destroyed and the leftovers were later dismantled by Soviet troops. Until 1939 the agglomeration of the optical and precision mechanical industries in and around Berlin had grown to include 2,244 establishments employing a total of 27,248 employees (Statistics bureau of Greater Berlin 1947, vol. 11). At the end of WW II, however, about 75–80%, in some cases 100%, of the optics and precision engineering industry and laboratory capacity in Berlin- Brandenburg were destroyed or dismantled and removed as reparation. The largest optics firms in Berlin (e.g., Philips, Kodak, Zeiss IKON, Siemens, Osram) moved administration, production, and/or their research apparatus away from Berlin. Some other firms were more or less disbanded, often as a result of the war (e.g., Askania, Fuess). Many related industries in Berlin shared a similar fate, and the entire academic research community faced a complete restructuring. As a result of these developments, Berlin lost valuable resources and its position as one of the most important and innovative industrial (and optics) agglomerates in Germany (Leupolt 1993). Divided developments in East and West between 1945 and 1989 Early attempts to rebuild companies in the optics and finemechanical industries in Berlin-Brandenburg could only draw on the remaining competencies and resources, as well as the workers returning from the war. In West-Berlin, the Osram factories were rebuilt in Wedding, while the former parent plant and headquarters in East Berlin were expropriated. Because of the island location of West Berlin, Osram moved part of its administration and research and development to Bavaria. Osram explicitly committed to Berlin, though. In 1971/1972, Osram opened a new production facility on Nonnendammallee in Berlin-Siemensstadt for the production of fluorescent lamps and high pressure discharge lamps. At Zeiss-IKON production of safety locks, lamps and cameras as well as colorimeters was rebuild after WW II. In 1948, Russian troops blockaded Berlin and Zeiss-IKON moved the company’s headquarters to Stuttgart. Despite the unfavorable economic situation, however, the Goerz facility in Zehlendorf was rebuilt. In 1973, the company finally abandoned camera production and, thereby, ended production in Berlin. Headquarters was moved back to Berlin and the Goerz facility concentrated on fur-ther development of locking systems. Even though the economic situation in Berlin had to be called “precarious” and only a small number of optics and precision-mechanical companies stayed in Berlin, a few companies successfully and newly established their business (e.g., Schmidt & Haensch, Steindorff, Semperlux, Berliner Glas). Major restructuring proceeded in the research arena. Following major destruction, the Polytechnic University in Berlin-Charlottenburg began reconstruction. The Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institute for Physics, however, was not reopened in Berlin but moved to Göttingen in 1948, instead, where it was reopened as Max-Planck-Institute for Physics, only to be moved to Munich in 1958. As an answer to the oppression of free speech, academic freedom and research at Berlin University in East Berlin, the Free University of Berlin was opened in 1948 using buildings vacated by the Kaiser- Wilhelm society in Berlin-Dahlem. The new physics department moved into the old building of the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institute for Physics. The Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB, formerly PTR) was newly established after 1945 in Braunschweig. A Berlin branch was reopened on the former PTR campus in Berlin- Charlottenburg. In the 1970s, the presence of the PTB in Berlin contributed to the establishment of the Ber-lin synchrotron radiation facility (BESSY). Two other developments in West Berlin are noteworthy: in the 1970s competencies emerged in optical data transmission (especially at the Fraunhofer Heinrich-Hertz-Institute), and in laser material processing and applications of laser technology in biomedicine (e.g., TU Berlin, FU Berlin, LMTB). In the eastern part of Berlin, the Soviet authorities followed a policy of extensive dismantlement and expropriation of industrial plants, as well as transformation of companies into state-owned enterprises (VEB). In research, Berlin University was reopened for teaching in 1946 as Humboldt University. Scientific research was concentrated in the Academy of Sciences (AdW) located in Berlin- Adlershof. Among the most important optics related institutions which became centers for optics and laser research in the GDR, were Central Institute for Electron Physics (ZIE) and the Central Institute for Optics and Spectroscopy (ZOS). While the ZOS became the center for (short-pulse) laser and spectroscopy research in East Germany, the ZIE concentrated on GaAs and Si electronics. The Center for Scientific Instruments (ZWG) of the AdW was established in Adlershof in 1963. It had a monopolyin the GDR for equip-ping scientific groups, e.g., in various areas of optics and x- ray technology research. In 1989, about 5,600 people worked for the Academy of Sciences in Berlin-Adlershof. Two examples can serve to illustrate the development of the optics industry in East Berlin. After 1945, the former AEG Oberspree plant in Berlin-Oberschöneweide was rebuilt and the production 22

3 History Simple ruby laser © Technical University of Berlin of (radio) tubes resumed. In the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s, the production portfolio was extended significantly and ultimately also included silicon diodes, LEDs, photo diodes, photo transistors, optoelectronic couplers, LCDs and color TV tubes. Up to 9,000 employees worked at the Oberspree plant complex until 1989 in the production of (television) tubes and semiconductors. After 1945, the East Berlin Osram production site and Osram headquarters in Berlin- Friedrichshain (Werk D) were expropriated and transferred into VEB Berliner Glühlampenwerk “Rosa Luxemburg”; the production of lamps resumed. In 1969, the plant was united with the lamp production companies in Plauen, Oberweißbach, Brand-Erbisdorf and Tambach-Dietharz to form the Narva combine. The brand name was derived from Nitrogenium, Argon and Vacuum. Until 1989, up to 5,000 employees were working in the production of lamps in Berlin- Friedrichshain. Main building of the Rathenower Optische Werke after 1945, before 1945 Nitsche & Günther © Kulturzentrum Rathenow/ Optikindustriemuseum Narva tower, built 1906-1912 for the Deutsche Gasglühlicht AG (Auer), later headquarters of bulbs manufacturers Osram and Narva © Frank Wolfrum like, e.g., the Max-Born-Institute and the Ferdinand-Braun-Institute, were also created in Adlershof; they employed experts and professional groups from the former AdW. BESSY II was built in Adlershof, and around the turn to the 21st century the scientific institutes of the Humboldt University were moved there, too, thereby resulting in a unique and efficient concentration of scientific institutions and innovative companies. In Rathenow, the “City of Optics”, the immense destruction, reparation, and the lack of qualified workers hampered the restart of the optics and fine mechanics industry during the first few years after the war. Bit by bit, optics companies in Rathenow were expropriated and combined to form the VEB Rathenower Optische Werke (ROW) which, in turn, became part of the Carl-Zeiss-Jena combine in 1966. Until the turnaround in 1989, about 4,420 employees were working in the production especially of spectacles in Rathenow. Phoenix from the ashes After 1989, the optical technologies field experienced a major transformation yet again. While developments in West Berlin happened rather gradually, imparting a certain stability, most East Berlin and Brandenburg optics companies and research institutions were terminated, sold, or at least vastly reduced in size. Consequently, substantial well qualified human resources were released. What resulted in unemployment for many individuals could also be considered a boon for the optical technologies field. Especially in Adlershof, numerous and varied new optics companies were founded, forming the basis for the dynamic development experienced today. The decision of the Berlin Senate to build a city of science and industry in Adlershof contributed significantly to this development. The AdW successor institutions 23

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