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Cluster Report Photonics in the Capital Region Berlin-Brandenburg

  • Text
  • Imaging
  • Photonics
  • Berlin
  • Optical
  • Laser
  • Technologies
  • Optics
  • Microsystems
  • Components
  • Brandenburg

2.2 Network and

2.2 Network and Cluster Development Figure 5: Value chain of optical technologies in Berlin-Brandenburg Source: Lerch, 2009, 216 (revised) Value added in the region Value chains are chains of value-added activities through which products and services in enterprises and enterprise-wide processes pass through and thereby experience added value (cf. Porter 1985). Since not simply listing of processing stages of a product or service, but rather the vertical, horizontal and lateral connections, is concerned, the instrument of value chain analysis is suitable for mapping (regional) economic relationships. To this end, a “core cluster” must be identified which may be an equipment manufacturer (OEM), important (system) suppliers and/or distributor, where supplier or customer relationships intersect (cf. Krätke/ Scheuplein, 2001). Considering steps of the value chain present in the Berlin-Brandenburg region, one can conclude that practically all steps of an idealized optics supply chain are represented by at least one cluster company (see figure 5). Unfilled areas are only the development of laser rods, and - since the broad retreat of the display manufacturer Samsung SDI from Berlin – users of optical technologies for consumer electronics. The regional valueadded chain in microsystems technology shows a similarly complete coverage (see figure 6). Particular strengths of the region are input materials, micro-optical systems and applications in medical technology. Whether actually complete value chains, i.e. through regional supplier and buyer relationships linked steps of the value chain, exist in the region could not be unambiguously determined due to the effort associated with the analysis in this work. However, cluster management has at its disposal a current and detailed value chain analysis for parts of the cluster. One can, however, in excerpts, conclude that the upstream and downstream value added by companies, i.e. supply and sales of products, happen regionally, nationally, internationally and globally, as expected for a knowledgeintensive and science-based technology industry. For example, many regional SMEs benefit from the local scientific potential. In their product development, for example, they utilize in regional facilities developed technologies, or they have recourse to special products supplied by research institutes but sell their products on the global market for high technology products. At the same time, companies obtain upstream products from other regional companies and in turn supply to other companies in the same as well as in other industries in the capital region. On the one hand, the potential of such regional added value needs to be exploited further; on the other hand, one must pay attention to the fragile balance that results from regionalism and global competitiveness. Summary The Berlin-Brandenburg region has significant potential for cluster development in the fields of optical technologies and micro- 18

2.2 Network and Cluster Development Figure 6: Value Chain of microsystems technology in Berlin-Brandenburg Source: TSB Innovationsagentur Berlin GmbH systems technology (cf. Hornauer 2002; TSB 2008; Lerch 2009). Given the identified number of companies, research institutions and supporting organizations, one can assume “critical mass” exists. In the capital region one can observe the agglomeration advantages for companies described in network and cluster analyses ((1) information drains and knowledge displacements, (2) the pool of skilled labor, as well as (3) specialized suppliers and joint infrastructure) and prove the action dynamics of Porter's diamond model (interactions between the four factors (1) factor conditions, (2) demand conditions, (3) related and supporting industries, and (4) firm structure, strategy, and rivalry). At the same time, numerous inter-organizational relationships and more complex network structures in various dimensions took hold in recent years. The interaction-frequency and -density are still increasing. In addition, the number of organizations involved in the cluster and their economic activity increased. In the capital region, also essential parts of the value chain of optical technologies and microsystems technology are available. Players occupying the same value chain stages sometimes stimulate each other as direct competitors. It should be noted, however, that the competition dynamics, the pressure to innovate, as well as demand stimuli in a science-based high-tech industry originate mainly in international markets. In addition to the extensive intra-regional networking, the research institutions and companies in the photonics cluster maintain diverse cluster-external and international cooperations and customer relations in various national and international supply and sales markets and with research institutions and supporting organizations (e.g. associations) in the whole world. In particular, trade fairs and congresses provide, as “temporary clusters”, regular opportunities to exchange information and know-how. 19

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